Monday, August 24, 2020
Disclose what you accept to be the 3 biggesrt reasons why the cost of a gallon of fuel has fallen such a great amount in the last not many momths - Essay Example or on the other hand the diminished cost is the diminishing oil request dependent on that various nations have been creating oil repositories that can support their inward industry. In the United States, the creation of oil has expanded altogether since 2008. The expansion has been impacted by the further developed penetrating in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil creation from the United States has expanded the gracefully to the global market. Also, not quite the same as oil from the Middle East, the cost for American Oil is moderately less expensive (Plumer 1). This depends on that the United States has diminished its buy level of costly worldwide oil. The effect of the methodology has been purchaser amicable. In the worldwide market, more oil from the United States and different providers the flexibly is moderately high. This declines the restraining infrastructure of creation from the Middle East (Plumer 1). In addition, with high flexibly the interest in significant oil makers diminishes. To continue their creation, oil makers decline the oil costs with the target to hold pertinence in the worldwide market. This progressions has essentially impacted the diminishing gas costs. The customer capacity to buy modest oil is straightforwardly affected by the general drop in the cost of unrefined petroleum. The fall being credited to high gracefully and low interest of the item. Every day, the United States a large number of barrels of oil to gracefully to the huge worldwide oil economy. The smallest reduction on the cost of unrefined petroleum significantly affects the retail cost cited for the gas. From 2013, the cost of unrefined petroleum has diminished essentially. The projection of the diminishing portray much more moderately low costs before the finish of 2015. The fall of worldwide costs was additionally impacted by the choice by OPEC not to control oil costs and oil creation (Plumer 1). Beforehand, the oil body would decide the costs of oil from its makers. The body has in its control the biggest makers of worldwide oil. With
Posted by Ralph Richardson at 4:15 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Adequacy Of Information Technology On Supply Chain Management Gracefully Chain Management is the idea known as the administration of the materials and the data over all the accomplices inside an industry including clients and providers. Flexibly Chain Management presents the activities for upper hands to organizations and it fortifies the utilization of innovation for increasingly exact and quicker correspondence among gracefully chain accomplices. The field of gracefully chain the executives has gotten colossally critical to organizations in an undeniably serious worldwide commercial center. The term flexibly affix alludes to the whole system of organizations that cooperate to configuration, produce, convey, and administration items ( Hausman, 2001) As a rule, the gracefully chain is the succession of undertakings from providers to end clients. The National Research Council alludes to it is an Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢ ¦..association of clients and providers who, cooperating yet in their own wellbeing, purchase, convert, disperse and sell merchandise and ventures among themselves bringing about the formation of a particular finished result ( National Resource Council, 2000) As per the Mentzer Supply chain the board is characterized as the fundamental, key coordination of the customary business works inside a specific organization and across organizations inside the gracefully chain, for the reasons for improving the drawn out exhibition of the individual organizations and the flexibly chain all in all. (Mentzer et al.,2001 in www.emeraldinsight.com) Organizations can't work for themselves and are henceforth naturally part of in any event one flexibly chain. The key members are the makers and their separate providers that team up to make and bolster the final result just as the clients that buy the last mentioned. A common gracefully chain includes the accompanying layers.( Werner, 2002) Essential maker Various levels providers Ones own organization Delegate exchange the type of discount and retail End-clients A gracefully chain is the way toward moving merchandise from the client request through the crude materials stage, flexibly, creation, and dissemination of items to the client. All association have gracefully chains of differing degrees, contingent on the size of the association and the sort of item made. These systems acquire supplies and parts, change these materials into completed items and afterward circulate them to the client. Dealing with the chain of occasions in this procedure is what is known as flexibly chain the executives. ( Ligus, 1999) The bullwhip impact is a significant reason for flexibly chains issues. It portrays how little changes sought after at the client level are intensified as requests leave behind the gracefully chain through merchants, producer, and providers. For instance think about expendable diapers. Infants for the most part devour diapers at a pretty much steady rate when amassed over an enormous gathering of clients. In any case, request variances constantly become extensively bigger as one moves upstream in this gracefully chain. Results of the bullwhip impact can be serious, including abundance and fluctuating inventories, deficiencies and stock outs, longer lead times, higher transportation and assembling expenses, and doubt between gracefully chain partners.(Fisher, 1997) The Supply Chain Operation Model (SCOR) was intended to empower organizations to convey, look at and gain from contenders both inside and outside of their industry. It just estimates flexibly chain execution yet in addition adequacy of gracefully chain reengineering. Further it can test and plan future procedure upgrades. The SCOR is a procedure reference model. Procedure reference models coordinate the notable ideas of business process reengineering, benchmarking, and process estimation into a cross practical structure( SCC,2001) The assessment of gracefully chain the board data innovation empowers organizations to incorporate exercises and associations that were already independent. Inside a bigger association the key component for manufacturing new proficient procedures is sharing information between capacities continuously. The goal is to dispense with regulatory errands that were create when data must be shared by sending records between these territories. ( Eloranta, E Holmstrom, J et al., 2001) Data innovations are not, at this point considered as ideal to have rather it is accepted that is an absolute necessity. Whoever utilizes the data innovations viably in dealing with his business will have progressively opportunity to prevail in todays world. Catching the essential information is one piece of the race yet sifting and changing the information into data adequately is the most significant idea. Organizations produce huge measures of information ordinary however they require advance devices to control the information to arrive at the useful information which assists with dealing with their business. The motivation behind this examination is to present the flexibly chain the executives idea and activities; and point the data advancements utilized around there to accomplish the normal advantages from the administration of a gracefully chain. It accentuation how data innovations impact gracefully chain the board and how might it be utilized to deal with the flexibly chain all the more successfully. In this bit of work, the rudiments of Supply chain the executives and the activities of the gracefully chain the executives are being portrayed. The impacts of data advances, as the inescapable spine of the flexibly chain the executives, will be clarified in detail. 3. Method of reasoning for Chosen Topic: Organizations endeavor to improve piece of the pie, develop corporate benefit, and addition key preferred position. So as to accomplish these objectives, gracefully chain competency must be set at the core of a companys plan of action. Firms understand that the opposition is driven by client request. Compelling gracefully chain the executives can offer clients top notch items and administrations with low costs. Powerful SCM can help lower creation and dissemination costs through consistent collaboration between colleagues in their gracefully chain. The huge retail fastens have battled to a halt in value wars in the course of the most recent decade. Presently they are understanding that the loaning edge IT is a significant weapon in the fight for piece of the overall industry ( Masters) 4. Research Questions: Defining a progression of inquiries adds lucidity to the exploration procedure. Hence, the major inquiries for the proposed look into subject are: What are the advantages of IT on the executives of flexibly chain? What are the impacts of IT framework on gracefully chain the executives? What are the advantages of merchant overseen stock in flexibly chain the executives? 5. Research Objectives: The examination targets clarify the reason for the exploration and characterize gauges for what the specialist will do. The destinations indicate the data expected to achieve the examination procedure. The point of this examination is to increase a superior comprehension of gracefully chain the executives and how influence IT on the board of Supply Chain by breaking down the merchant oversaw stock (VMI). This VMI idea will be acquainted and its advantages with flexibly chain the board 6. Writing Review: Data is vital to gracefully chain execution since it gives the establishment on which flexibly chain forms execute exchanges and chiefs decide. Without data, a chief won't realize what client need, how much stock in stock, and when more items ought to be delivered and transported. So, without data a supervisor can just settle on a choice aimlessly. Hence, data makes the flexibly bind obvious to an administrator. Given the job of data in a flexibly chains achievement, directors must see how data is accumulated and broke down. This is the place IT becomes possibly the most important factor. IT comprises of the equipment and programming all through a gracefully chain that assembles, examinations, and follows up on data. It fills in as the eyes and ears of the executives in a gracefully chain, catching and breaking down the data important to settle on a decent choice. Utilizing IT frameworks to catch and investigate data can significantly affect an organizations execution. For instance, a significant producer of PC work-stations and serves found that a great part of the data on client request was not being utilized to set creation calendars and stock levels. The assembling bunch did not have this interest data, which constrained them to settle on stock and creation choices aimlessly. By introducing a flexibly chain programming framework, the organization had the option to assemble and break down information to deliver suggested loading levels. Utilizing the IT framework empowered the organization to slice its stock down the middle since administrators could now settle on choices dependent on data instead of instructed surmises. Enormous effects like this underscore the significance of IT as a driver of flexibly chain execution. (Chopra, S. furthermore, Meindl, P., 2001) A productive method to improve the viability of SCM is to utilize Information Technology (IT). IT-arrangements improve the mix with different entertainers in the gracefully chain and make the business forms increasingly powerful. This is finished by revamping the procedures and mechanizing the data stream between the organizations in question (Wu et al., 2004). Data innovation has created in a quick pace in the territory of gracefully chain the executives. This has produced new instruments and answers for handle the data sharing between various entertainers in flexibly arranges. These sorts of flexibly chain innovations are of incredible ebb and flow intrigue which is demonstrated by an exploration made by AMR Research Inc. The exploration demonstrates that almost $15 billion been spent on SCM programming since 1999 in the only us (Ruppel, 2004). The most common job of IT in SCM is lessening the contact in exchange between flexibly chains accomplices through practical data stream. Then again, IT is all the more significantly saw to have a job in supporting the joint effort and coordination of s
Posted by Ralph Richardson at 1:42 AM
Wednesday, July 22, 2020
Review of IELTS Essay Sample BooksIELTS Essay samples that appear in the book 'Learning to Speak English - Advanced' by IELTS student Andrew Rockwell can be used for a student to learn how to read and write the writing language. These samples provide the student with information on English writing structure, spelling, grammar, sentence structure, and vocabulary. They also give the student a glimpse into the different approach English speakers use when they learn a new language.Rockwell uses several IELTS Essay samples for each of the different levels of English speaking and writing. He begins at the very basic level, but with each sample, he makes it more advanced. The samples can also be adapted to suit the students needs. The best way to adapt them is to use them in small segments.Rockwell uses the example sentences from IELTS Essay samples in his lectures. It is very useful to be able to use the sentence examples in the classroom. If not in class, the students can read the example s and use them as references during the lecture. The examples can also be adapted to include other topics besides reading and writing in the classroom setting.Students who are already familiar with the written and spoken English may find this book valuable. It provides the students with some of the basics of writing and reading English.This book contains IELTS Essay samples for both the B2 Level and the C Level of English speaking and writing. It also includes IELTS Essay samples for learning how to read and write different styles of English.It is not necessary to purchase this book if you do not want to buy the complete set of IELTS Essay samples. There are several online sources to purchase IELTS Essaysamples and use them yourself. You could order them from the publisher's website or directly from the manufacturer.The cost for this book is very reasonable. It is very affordable and will not cost you more than what you would pay for a good online source. I recommend purchasing this book as soon as possible. I find it helpful to practice on my own with the short passages from IELTS Essay samples.Students who are not comfortable writing their own essays should study and understand the IELTS Essay samples. They will be much more confident when they begin writing their own essays. Students may use the essay samples as references to help them with their essays.
Posted by Ralph Richardson at 9:07 AM
Friday, May 22, 2020
The beautiful cardinal with its bold red coloringÃ and striking black mask is the state bird of Kentucky. There are over 300 bird species native to the state, but the cardinal was singled out for the honor of state bird by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1926. Because of its striking colors and broad range, however, Kentucky isnt the only state that names the cardinal as its official bird. It also holds the honor inÃ Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia. Appearance and Coloring The cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) is officially known as the northern cardinal. It is also commonly referred to as a redbird, although only the male is colored with the easily-recognizable bold colors for which the bird is known. The female is a much less vivid, though still beautiful,Ã reddish-tanÃ color. Juvenile cardinals also sport a reddish-tan color that, in the males, eventually grows to the full, deep red plumage of an adult. Cardinals were named because their plumage reminded European settlers of the robes of a cardinal, a leader in the Roman Catholic church. Both the male and female feature the black mask and a pointed crest with orange- orÃ coral-colored bills. According to Melissa Mayntz, The red coloration of northern cardinals plumage is a result of carotenoids in their feather structure, and they ingest those carotenoids through their diet. On rare occasions, vibrant yellow northern cardinals may be seen, a plumage variation calledÃ xanthochroism. Behavior Cardinals are medium-sized songbirds. The adults measure about eight inches in length from beak to tail. Because cardinals dont migrate, they can be seen and heard year-round. They are found primarily in the southeastern United States, however, thanks to backyard bird feeders, these colorful and easily adaptable creatures have expanded their territory further north and west. Both the male and female sing year round. The female may sing from the nest to let the male know she needs food. They also sing to each other while searching out the best nesting spots. The mating pair stays together for the entire breeding season and, perhaps, for life. The pair breed two or three times during the season with theÃ female laying 3-4 eggs each time. After the eggs hatch, both the male and female help care for the babies until they leave the nest about two weeks later. Cardinals are omnivores, eating both plant and animal products, such asÃ seeds, nuts, berries, and insects. The average lifespan of a northern cardinal is about 3 years in the wild. Other Kentucky Facts Kentucky, whose name comes from an Iroquois word meaning land of tomorrow,Ã is located in the southern United States. It is bordered by Tennessee, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. Frankfort is Kentuckys state capital and nearby Louisville, only about 50 miles to the west, is its largest city. The states natural resources include timber, coal, and tobacco. In addition to its state bird, the cardinal, Kentuckys other state symbols include:Ã Flower: goldenrodTree: tulip poplarInsect: honeybeeFish: Kentucky spotted bassFruit: blackberryMammal: grey squirrelHorse: thoroughbred (This isnt surprising since Kentucky is the home of one of the biggest horse races in the United States, the Kentucky Derby.)Song: My Old Kentucky Home The state was the 15th to be admitted to the Union, becoming a state on June 1, 1792. It earned the name The Bluegrass State due to the lush grass the grows in the state. When seen growing in large fields, the grass sports blue appearance in the spring. Kentucky is the home of Fort Knox, where much of the United States gold reserves are housed, and Mammoth Cave, the longest known cave system in the world. Three hundred eighty-five miles of the cave have been mapped and new sections are still being discovered. Daniel Boone was one of the early explorers of the area which would later become Kentucky. Abraham Lincoln, who was born in Kentucky, is another famous figure associated with the state. Lincoln was president during the American Civil War, during which Kentucky remained an officially neutral state.
Posted by Ralph Richardson at 2:09 AM
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Since the beginning of time, on every corner of the earth, there have been heroes who possess traits that make them important gifts to the world. The specific qualities that heroes possess influence their own lives and those of the people around them, specifically like the heroes in the epic Ã¢â¬Å"BeowulfÃ¢â¬ and the novel The Once and Future King. Each trait that Arthur and Beowulf possessed impacted major events in their lives, such as defeating Grendel in Ã¢â¬Å"BeowulfÃ¢â¬ or removing Excalibur from the stone in The Once and Future King. In both literary pieces, Arthur and Beowulf embark on quests in order to save their people. For both heroes, the effects of their actions differed, as well as many key happenings throughout their journeys. BothÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The way in which these heroes fought their battles reveals their strengths and weaknesses. Beginning in BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s first quest, his bold personality allows him to undertake his task head on and wi th bravery. When Beowulf fights Grendel, he is daring and noble enough to fight the monster without any weapons. If Beowulf had a weak personality he would not have been courageous enough to fight Grendel without weapons although he does mention that it is the honorable thing to do. During BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s final quest he willingly fights the dragon for his people although he knows he will die doing so. Ã¢â¬Å"...---a king, before, but now / A beaten warrior.Ã¢â¬ BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s strong personality allowed him to be noble whereas ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s frail personality did not allow him to stand up for what he knew was right. ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Guenever was involved in an affair with his best friend Lancelot. Knowing that this was occurring, Arthur failed to address the issue, slowly causing him to become a sad old king. Arthur was also much weaker than Beowulf because Arthur failed to overcome the temptation of Queen Morgause, thus committing incest. Not only does the strength of ea ch character affect their quests, it also affects the use of symbolism through the sword in each tale. The importance of the sword in both stories plays a major role in the development of the character traits of each hero. In the epic Ã¢â¬Å"BeowulfÃ¢â¬ , there are two important swords, Hrunting given to Beowulf by Unferth, a coward, and theShow MoreRelated Compare and contrast images of heroism in these two poems. Essay1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCompare and contrast images of heroism in these two poems. Heroism is a trait that we seem to have no problem identifying, yet when asked to define what a hero is a myriad of answers emerge. This phenomenon is not unique to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society; the definition of a hero is something that is constantly under revision and debate. An example of this can be seen in two older pieces of English literature: Beowulf, written circa 750-900, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, written circa 1375-1400Read MoreEssay on Ideal Women vs Real Women in Beowulf and The Wife of Bath1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageschallenges a man belief; and does not symbolize perfect women. In the epic poem Beowulf majority of the characters are males; with the exception of a few females in the poem. When going back to the information of the women in Beowulf; there are some concepts that define women. One is being that women have assertive and firm role. The mother of Grendel is a female character that becomes a threat to the Danes, as well as Beowulf. Then it became clear, Obvious to everyone once the fight was over, ThatRead MoreThe Sonnet Form: William Shakespeare6305 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Sonnets William Shakespeare The Sonnet Form A sonnet is a fourteen-line lyric poem, traditionally written in iambic pentameterÃ¢â¬âthat is, in lines ten syllables long, with accents falling on every second syllable, as in: Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I compare thee to a summerÃ¢â¬â¢s day?Ã¢â¬ The sonnet form first became popular during the Italian Renaissance, when the poet Petrarch published a sequence of love sonnets addressed to an idealized woman named Laura. Taking firm hold among Italian poets, the sonnet
Posted by Ralph Richardson at 12:11 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s Soliloquy In MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s soliloquy Shakespeare uses many rhetorical devices to magnify MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s change in attitude about killing Duncan. Two of the main rhetorical devices used in the soliloquy are rhetorical questions and allusions to Hecate and Tarquin. These two devices help Shakespeare depict the change in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude about killing Duncan and also represent his decision to kill Duncan. We will write a custom essay sample on Macbeth Soliloquy or any similar topic only for you Order Now MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s rhetorical questions share his lack of clarity and conviction to kill Duncan while the allusions represent his decision forming and becoming clear to him. At the beginning of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s soliloquy Shakespeare uses rhetorical questions to represent MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings about killing Duncan. In the first seven lines we see three rhetorical questions. These questions lead into the conversation Macbeth has with himself to decide if he will kill Duncan. At the beginning of the soliloquy he seems unsure if he actually wants to go through with the plan. This uncertainty is represented by his uncertainty of the daggerÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. The first question he asks is whether or not he actually sees a dagger in front of him. It is a simple question but leads us into the others. The second question he asks is if the dagger was sent by a Ã¢â¬Å"fatal visionÃ¢â¬ (II. i. 35). Here, the word fatal acts as a double entendre. Fatal can either mean someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s destiny or it can mean a deadly action and in this case it works with both definitions. Macbeth wonders if it is his fate to kill Duncan with the dagger and the dagger is the deadly weapon that will be used to kill Duncan later on in the play. The final question Macbeth asks himself is whether this dagger is real or not and if it is formed by his Ã¢â¬Å"heat-oppressed brainÃ¢â¬ (II. i. 38). The fact that he does not even know if he really sees a dagger or not makes it clear to the audience that he is going crazy over the thought of killing Duncan. When Macbeth asks himself this question he is wondering whether he really wants to kill Duncan or if he is just caught in the moment. Later in the soliloquy he even says Ã¢â¬Å"[his] eyes are madeÃ¢â¬ ¦foolsÃ¢â¬ (II. i. 43) and that it is Ã¢â¬Å"the bloody business which informs/ [the dagger] to [his] eyesÃ¢â¬ (II. i. 47-48). Since the dagger is not real we know Shakespeare is telling us that Macbeth is thinking about killing Duncan but is still too scared to actually do it. As the soliloquy progresses, and so does his idea of killing Duncan, he starts talking about more concrete ideas, such as witchcraft, and this represents his growing desire to kill Duncan. In the second half of the soliloquy Macbeth finally decides to kill Duncan. When Macbeth says Ã¢â¬Å"now oÃ¢â¬â¢er the one half-worldÃ¢â¬ (II. i. 48) he is talking about the time when people are asleep, or nighttime. While he does this he alludes to two famous and immoral people, the goddess Hecate and the Roman King Tarquin. At the time when Shakespeare was alive the audience knew who Shakespeare was referring when Macbeth said the names Tarquin and Hecate. This simple connection would allow the audience to understand where MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s decision would go and why he finally came to that decision. Shakespeare draws many parallels between Macbeth and these two people. Shakespeare alludes to Hecate because she was the goddess of magic, witchcraft, the night, the moon, ghosts, and necromancy. All of these things are affiliated with evil and when Macbeth says that Ã¢â¬Å"witchcraft celebrates/Pale HecateÃ¢â¬â¢s offeringsÃ¢â¬ (II. i. 50-51) he is trying to persuade himself that even though she is the goddess of these evil things, people still celebrate her and something good may come from killing Duncan. Shakespeare draws a parallel between Hecate and Macbeth because Macbeth finally decides he will kill Duncan after the bell rings in the same way HecateÃ¢â¬â¢s ritual sacrifices were summoned by the wolfÃ¢â¬â¢s howl. Shakespeare also connects Macbeth to Tarquin in a similar way. Tarquin became the King of Rome by killing King Tullius. After Tarquin became the King of Rome he started a reign of terror. Besides killing King Tullius, Tarquin put many senators to death, his son raped a woman named Lucretia and eventually the Tarquin family was banished from Italy. By connecting Tarquin to Macbeth Shakespeare wants to show that they both knew what they were doing before committing the crime and chose to do it anyway. Also, Shakespeare is showing MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s change from an innocent man to a ruthless king whether Macbeth wants that or not and we see this later on in the play when Macbeth orders men to kill Banquo and his son, Fleance in fear that they may try to overthrow him. Shakespeare ends the soliloquy by saying that the Ã¢â¬Å"words to the heat of deeds too cold breath givesÃ¢â¬ (II. i. 60). By ending the soliloquy with this statement shows the change in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to kill Duncan and become king. The reason why Shakespeare included the soliloquy into the play is to show the audience how Macbeth finally comes to the decision to kill Duncan. Through the rhetorical devices used in the soliloquy Shakespeare is able to give the audience insight on how Macbeth goes from a guiltless man with no gall to a cold blood killer. We know by the end of it Macbeth has decided to kill Duncan and when the bell rings he goes to DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s room to complete the job. We also know that later on he sends men to kill more people in order to keep his position as king and it is much easier for him to make that decision. How to cite Macbeth Soliloquy, Essay examples
Posted by Ralph Richardson at 9:04 AM
Monday, April 27, 2020
Introduction The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a significant step forward that caters for improving the health care in the United States. President Obama signed the Act into law in March 2010. The Act is now consistent with the advocacy principles that are adopted in the AAFP Congress of Delegates as from October 2009.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the implementation of the Act came amidst reactions from various states. Organizations together with other lawmakers came up with some opposing forces on the bill. The main idea behind their opposing forces was because of the key provisions in the bill. Some of the provisions within the bill claimed that individual fines from failing to purchase the insurance does not work within the scope of taxing powers of the Congress. Among the states that reacted over t he act is Iowa, which used its legislators to sue the progress (DPC 3). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) also known as the Obamacare plan, has various provisions contained therein to cater for the health needs of the citizens. There is inclusion of a parent clause that deals with prior policies on health and makes the Act to be exempted from the policies (Pipes 5). The first provision is the guaranteed issue clause. This requires the health policies to be issued to the citizens without any discrimination regarding their medical condition. Pipes (161) further indicates that the law also requires insurers to exercise partial community rating whereby same premiums must be issued to applicants within the same geographical location or age (8). Gender should not be considered a discriminating factor or prior existing conditions with the exception of tobacco use. This paper will examine the reaction of some states notably Iowa and Virginia. It will also evaluate the d ifferences in their reactions and implementation of the Act. Objectives The study seeks to establish the economic impacts of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on the public and the various states. Specifically this study will seek to: Investigate the impacts of the act on the public To investigate the impacts of the act on the various states To find out reasons why the states of Iowa and Virginia rejected the act The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act The Act states that all citizens who are not insured by their employer, Medicaid, Medicare or any other public insurance program, must ensure that they are under a private insurance policy failure to which they will pay a penalty (DPC 5). This is however not applicable to members of religious sects recognized by the Internal Revenue Service or have been ignored due to financial hardships.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OF F Learn More The third provision requires health insurance exchanges to operate in every state in the country and ensure that citizens can choose from various policies and premiums. This means that there should be a variety of premiums available in the market. The Act also caters for low income earners. It provides for federal subsidies to be granted on a sliding scale to families between 100% and 400% of the federal poverty level (DPC 7). This is however subject to them purchasing an insurance premium through an exchange. The Supreme Court however left a loophole in the legislation when it allowed some states to exclude themselves out of the Medicaid expansion (Pipes 18). These states are however required to set up their own parameters on the eligibility of the members. Most of the states under this category fall under the 133% threshold. Another provision requires states and insurers to set the policiesÃ¢â¬â¢ standards and bans policies that cover the lifetime of a poli cyholder. A range of taxes and offsets (DPC 8) funds the provisions under the Act. Most of the revenue is derived from expanded Medicare tax especially on incomes in excess of $200,000 and $250,000. Other sources according to Gibson and Pranad (154) include a 40% excise tax on insurance policies, tax on pharmaceuticals, expensive diagnostic equipment, a 10% tax charged on the sales tax of indoor tanning services and a percentage from the annual fee charged on insurance providers. Offsets on the other hand are derived from expected savings from the costs related to Medicare Advantage programs. Under this Act, the federal government was going to pay full costs for three years and then shift the costs gradually to the state (DPC 8). The cost was to be shifted in 10% installments over time. However, a few concerns were raised regarding the long-term viability of the model. From an outsiderÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, this could be the best thing to ever happen to a country. The uproar creat ed by the Republicans and citizens left many wondering what was wrong with this law. Due to the ruling in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, many states reacted differently to the Act. The ruling contradicted many aspects that had been made clear to the people by the president and other relevant authorities with knowledge. This is despite the fact that the Act provides some incredible guidelines to achieve high-quality provision of healthcare in the country.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reactions by the Iowa state Iowa is one of the many states that reacted on the approval of the Act by the president. The state used the governor in signing a lawsuit against the federal health care. According to the governor, the lawsuit will challenge personal mandate of the healthcare bill, which forces Iowans to purcha se health insurance from the federal government, which is mandatory. Additionally, the law gives option for the expansion of Medicaid, which is quite costly making the residents of the state to cut on their other programs. The impact of the health care bill will completely disorganize the state budget thereby freezing significant activities. Considering that the governor is trying to process a five-year budget, inclusion of the law in the budget will affect the Iowa taxpayers. Iowa people view the law as an impediment on their success in development. An additional expense on their income will alter their daily chores expenses thereby affecting the general development of the state. From the taxpayersÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective, they risk paying more taxes, which can be a substitute for other important activities (Danielson par 3). On the contrary, some have positive hopes on the implementation of the law. From their perspective, the law will help the Iowa state to fulfill its goals of prote ction and promotion of health and welfare of the public. Considering that health care is a crucial factor in most regions, implementation of the law would help in solving health issues that concerns the society at an affordable rate. Reactions by the Virginia State Another state to react on the health care law signed by the president is Virginia. According to the people of the state, the healthcare reform requires people to purchase health insurance, which presents unconstitutionality in the nation. Another reason that the state reacted upon the law was the individual mandate of purchasing the law together with the direct dependent provisions that the law provides to the citizens (Kousser and Justin 42). According to the sector of individual mandate, the law requires all the citizens to purchase the insurance by 2014 or face a penalty for not buying. From the legal point of view, the final language of the law misleadingly mentions the penalty tax, prior its name being a penalty in t he draft language before passing the final bill. The factor of penalty and tax is a paradox considering that the constitution requires the federal government to impose taxes with a penalty imposed to those who violate the constitution. In a law-abiding country, individuals should be given a chance constitutionally to accept some of the laws implemented by the government (Pecquet par 6).Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Factors that led to the Different Reactions by the Two States Even though a myriad of explanations were given as to why the law should be rejected, it is evident that the rejections were significantly fuelled by politics. This is due to the belief that a change of guard i.e. from a Democrat to a Republican, would likely amplify the probability that this law would have less strict federal requirements (Pipes 12). It is therefore not by coincidence that most of the states that opposed the enactment of this law are made up of majority Republicans and conservatives. However, the reactions from Iowa were more explosive when compared to the reactions from Virginia (Steinglass 216). The Iowa Republicans were very vocal on the issue and were adamant to accept the law until the time their concerns were addressed. Being at the helm of the specific states, the implementation of this law depended hugely on these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on the budget of the states and other forms of lobbying w ithin the health sector. This is what some of the politicians from the two states had to say: In Iowa, most of the Republicans were against the law. Being the majority, they were the ones who were charged with the responsibility of implementing the Act and much depended on their stand on the issue. For instance, Congressman Steve King stated that the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling in favor of the Act was not in line with what lower courts had decided regarding the matter. According to King, the lower courts had agreed that the individual mandate could not be treated as a form of tax and therefore could not be implemented by the CongressÃ¢â¬â¢ powers on taxation. He also emphasized that the Supreme Court ruling was in contradiction with President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s views since he had earlier stated on national television during a debate that the individual mandate was not a tax (DPC 8). That was the case before the law was passed into a bill. Subsequently, the government defended the ma ndate under CongressÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"taxing and spending powerÃ¢â¬ (DPC 9). Methodology The purpose of this chapter is to present the details of the approach to the research. The approach should be illustrated to increase the validity of the research. The approach to the research was done considering a research onion. Therefore, the methodology chapter will be considered by a discussion of the philosophy of the research, the approach, strategy of the research, data collection, and the focus group. Research Onion The diagram below displays the research process, which resembles an onion. A research onion was used to provide a description of the methodology of the research. The research onion presents a clear framework of the methodology employed. As shown in the diagram above, it has layers representing every item consulted. Through each layer, the research questions will be answered. Using the outer layer, there are various philosophies considered as shown bellow. Works Cited Dan ielson, Dar. Iowa governor signs onto Florida lawsuit against federal health care. 2011. 18 March 2013. https://www.radioiowa.com/2011/01/18/iowa-governor-signs-onto-florida-lawsuit-against-federal-health-care/. DPC. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. 2010. 18 March 2013. https://www.dpc.senate.gov/healthreformbill/healthbill04.pdf. Gibson, Rosemary and Prasad, Janardan. The Battle over Health Care: What ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Reform Means for AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Future. Plymouth : Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 2012. Print. Kousser, Thad and Justin, Phillips. The Power of American Governors. 2013. 18 March 2013. http://www.columbia.edu/~jhp2121/publications/ThePowerOfAmericanGovernors.pdf Pecquet, Julian. Federal judge rules against new healthcare law in Virginia lawsuit. 2010. 18 March 2013. https://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/133357-virginia-ruling-expected-to-set-stage-for-supreme-court-battle. Pipes, Sally. The Truth about Obamacare. Washington: Regnery Publishing Inc, 201 0. Print. Steinglass, Steven, and Gino, Scarselli. The Ohio State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2004. Print. This research paper on Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was written and submitted by user JackPower to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
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